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Section 1207.12    Off-Street Parking and Loading Requirements

  1. Purpose
    The purpose of this section is to prevent or alleviate the congestion of public streets,
    to minimize any detrimental effects of vehicular use areas on adjacent properties, to
    enhance vehicular use areas with landscape elements, and to promote the safety and
    welfare of the public.

  2. Applicability
    Any building, structure or use of land, when erected or enlarged, shall provide for
    off-street parking and loading spaces for vehicles in accordance with the following
    provisions except as set forth in (D) below:
    1. A parking and loading plan shall be required for all uses except single family
      detached dwellings and two family dwellings. The parking and loading plan
      shall be submitted to the City as part of the application for site plan review.

    2. Whenever a building or use constructed or established after the effective date
      of this Code is changed or enlarged in floor area, number of employees,
      number of dwelling units, seating capacity, or otherwise such as to create a
      need for an increase of ten (10) percent or more in the number of existing
      parking spaces, such spaces shall be provided on the basis of the enlargement
      or change.

    3. Whenever a building or use existing prior to the effective date of this Code is
      enlarged to the extent of fifty (50) percent or more in floor area or in the area
      used, then the vehicular use area shall comply with the off-street parking
      requirements as set forth in this Section.

    4. Until an overall parking plan is completed for the Downtown Development
      District (as defined by the boundaries of Owen Brown Street, Main Street
      and Morse Streets), parking needs for all development in the Downtown
      Development District will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Plan Elements
    The parking and loading plan shall show the following:
    1. Boundaries of the property;
    2. Number of parking spaces;
    3. The arrangement of parking aisles;
    4. The location of driveway entrances;
    5. Provisions for vehicular and pedestrian circulation;
    6. The location of sidewalks, wheel stops, lighting and curbs on or adjacent to
      the property;
    7. The location of utilities, barriers, shelters, signs, boundary walls, and fences;
    8. The location of landscaping in parking area and the types and location of
      vegetation to be planted;
    9. Typical cross sections of pavement, and storm water drainage facilities; and
    10. Other information as set forth in Appendix A or as requested by the
      Community Development Department.

      See Section 1207.04(m), "Landscaping/Bufferyards" for parking area landscaping

  4. General Design Standards
    All parking and loading plans shall meet the following standards:
    1. Parking lots shall be developed in accordance with all District regulations
      established for the Zoning District in which the parking is located.

    2. Parking areas shall be treated to minimize the visual impact of parked cars as
      viewed from the public right-of-way and adjacent properties through the use
      of plantings and earth berms.

    3. Buildings shall be set back from the edge of parking areas to provide for a
      sidewalk and landscape treatment in front of the building.

    4. Where a sidewalk exists in a public right-of-way adjacent to a site, or is
      required to be constructed as part of development approval, a pedestrian
      connection shall be constructed from the building to the sidewalk in
      compliance with standards set forth in the Americans With Disabilities Act.

    5. Driveways shall not be used as points of ingress and egress for individual
      parking spaces. Driveways shall be placed such that loading and unloading
      activities will not hinder vehicular ingress or egress. To the maximum extent
      feasible, provisions for circulation between adjacent parcels shall be provided
      through coordinated or joint parking systems to minimize curb cuts along the
      street. (See Subsection (h) below.)

    6. Curb definitions shall be maintained, prohibiting continuous access along the
      frontage of the site.

  5. Computation of Required Parking Spaces
    In computing the number of parking spaces required by this section, the following
    shall apply:
    1. Where building floor area is designated as the standard for determining
      parking space requirements, floor area shall be the sum of the gross leasable
      horizontal area of all floors of a non-residential building.

    2. Fractional numbers shall be increased to the next highest whole number.

    3. Parking space requirements for a use not specifically mentioned in this Code
      shall be determined by using the most similar and restrictive parking space
      requirements as approved by the City Manager.

    4. When building floor area is designated as the standard for determining
      parking space requirements and the resulting number of parking spaces is less
      than the minimum standard, at least one off-street parking space shall be
      provided on the premises.

    5. Landbanking of parking area for potential future use is encouraged.

  6. Parking Space Requirements
    1. Minimum Parking Space Requirements. For the purpose of this Code, in
      establishing minimum off-street parking requirements, the Planning
      Commission may utilize the requirements set forth below or the requirements
      set forth in the Parking Generation Manual (Institute of Transportation
      Engineers, 2nd Edition). The method of calculating off-street parking
      requirements shall be established by the City Manager during initial review
      of a development application.

      Automotive Repair Services

      Two spaces for each service bay, plus one
      space per employee.
      Automotive Service Stations

      One space per fuel pump, plus one space for
      each 1.5 employees.
      Automotive Dealers

      One space for each 400 square feet of floor
      area plus one (1) for each employee.
      Banks and other Financial

      One space for each 400 square feet of floor
      Institution area plus sufficient stacking space
      at drive-up facilities to accommodate the
      number of automobiles equal to five times the
      number of teller windows.

      One space for each 100 square feet of floor
      Bed and Breakfast Inn

      One space for each guest room plus two
      spaces for the permanent residence.
      Car Wash Facilities

      Automobile car washes shall provide
      sufficient stacking spaces for four vehicles per
      bay, and one space per employee.
      Commercial Nursery
      or Greenhouse
      One space per 1,000 square feet of floor
      area plus one space per 2,000 square feet
      of land area.
      Commercial School/
      Artist Studio
      One space per 300 square feet of floor area.

      Contractor Yard

      One space for each 1,000 square feet of floor
      area plus one space for each facility vehicle.
      Convalescent Care Facility/
      Assisted Living
      One space for every six (6) beds plus one
      space for every two (2) employees.
      Convenience Store

      One space for each 200 square feet of floor
      Convention or Conference
      One space for each 3 (three) seats.

      Day Care Center

      One space for each 500 square feet of floor
      area plus one space for each employee.
      Elementary and Middle

      Two spaces per classroom, plus one space
      for every 3 (three) seats in the largest
      assembly hall.
      Entertainment & amusement
      facilities, indoors

      One space for each three seats or one space
      for each 200 feet of floor area, whichever is
      Funeral Home
      Four spaces per 300 square feet of floor area.
      Golf Course

      One space per two employees, plus three per
      golf hole.
      Group Home One space for each four beds.
      High Schools

      One space per 2 (two) teachers, employees,
      and administrators, plus one space per 10 (ten)
      One space for each two beds.

      One space for each employee on the shift with
      the highest number of employees.

      One space for each sleeping room plus one
      space for each 400 square feet of public
      meeting area and/or restaurant space.
      Medical Clinics

      One space for each 100 square feet of floor

      One space for each 400 square feet of floor
      area as the minimum parking space
      requirement and one space for each 250
      square feet of floor area as the maximum
      permitted parking.
      Personal and Business
      One space for each 200 square feet of floor
      Printing and Related Trades

      One space for each 500 square feet of floor
      Private Member Recreation
      Facility or Club

      One space per 200 square feet of floor area
      or one space for each four seats, whichever is
      Public Buildings

      One space for each 200 square feet of floor
      Recording, Radio, or TV
      One space per 400 square feet of floor area.

      Recreational, Non-

      One space for each 2 participants at maximum
      Commercial utilization.
      Recreational, Commercial
      One space for each 3 persons at capacity.
      Religious Places of Worship

      One space for each four seats in the place of
      Residential, Multi-Family
      Two spaces for each dwelling unit.
      Residential, Single Family
      Two spaces for each dwelling unit.
      Residential, Two Family
      Two spaces for each dwelling unit.
      Research and Development
      One space for each 500 square feet of
      floor area.

      One space for each two seats of seating
      Retail Business

      One space for each 250 square feet of floor
      Shopping Center

      One space for each 250 square feet of floor
      Skating Rink

      One space per each 200 square feet of floor
      Swimming Club

      One space for each 300 square feet of pool
      and promenade area.

      One space for each three (3) seats plus one for
      each two employees.
      Veterinarian Facility
      Four spaces for each examination room.
      One space for each 1,000 square feet





    2. These minimum requirements are also the maximum requirements, unless the
      applicant shows extraordinary circumstances that necessitate additional
      parking beyond these maximums or as permitted above.

  7. Location of Required Parking Spaces
    1. Off-Street Parking. Required off-street parking spaces for any use shall be
      located on the same parcel as the use they are intended to serve, except where
      these regulations allow shared parking between uses on different lots
      pursuant to subsection (h) below.

    2. Residential Parking No residential parking area shall be utilized for
      commercial vehicle parking.

    3. Parking of Inoperable or Abandoned Vehicles. The parking or storage of
      inoperable, abandoned, or unlicenced vehicles is prohibited outdoors in all
      zone districts.

  8. Joint or Collective Parking Facilities
    Shared parking facilities are strongly encouraged (see Figure 21) and are permitted if
    multiple uses cooperatively establish and operate the facilities and if these uses
    generate parking demands primarily during hours when the remaining uses are not in
    operation. (For example, if one use operates during evenings or week days only.)
    The applicant shall have the burden of proof for a reduction in the total number of
    required off-street parking spaces, and documentation shall be submitted
    substantiating their reasons for the requested parking reduction. Shared parking may
    be approved if:
    1. A sufficient number of spaces are provided to meet the highest demand of
      the participating uses;

    2. Evidence to the satisfaction of the Planning Commission, has been submitted
      by the parties operating the shared parking facility, describing the nature of
      the uses and the times when the uses operate so as to demonstrate the lack of
      potential conflict between them; and

    3. Additional documents, covenants, deed restrictions, or other agreements as
      may be deemed necessary by the Planning Commission are executed to
      assure that the required parking spaces provided are maintained and uses
      with similar hours and parking requirements as those uses sharing the
      parking facilities remain for the life of the development.

    4. Shared parking spaces shall be located no more than three (300) hundred feet
      from the uses they are intended to serve.

    5. In Zone District 5, "Village Core," any on-street parking located within 300
      feet of the subject site that can be accessed by sidewalks and cross walks
      within that distance shall be counted toward the off-street parking
      requirement of the subject use, except for residential and commercial lodging

  9. Lot Size/Scale
    Large surface parking lots shall be visually and functionally segmented into several
    smaller lots according to the standards found in Section 1207.04, "Landscaping/
    Bufferyards," subsection (m)-Landscaping for Parking Lots.

  10. Handicapped Parking Requirements
    1. Parking facilities serving buildings and facilities required to be accessible to
      the physically disabled shall have conveniently located designated
      handicapped parking spaces to be provided as follows:

    2. The dimension of parking spaces serving handicapped persons shall be at
      least fourteen (14) feet wide by nineteen (19) feet long, and ADA van
      accessible spaces as required.

  11. Design of Parking Spaces and Aisles
    Each required parking space shall meet the minimum dimensional requirements set
    out in the following table and illustrated in Figure 22 below.

  12. Aisles
    Each required parking space shall have direct and unrestricted access to an aisle of
    the minimum width set out in Subsection (k) and illustrated in Figure 22

  13. Access
    All parking spaces shall be entered and exited along parking aisles arranged
    perpendicular to access drives or aisles to the maximum extent feasible. Parking
    spaces shall not be located along entry drives within thirty feet (30') of the right-of-

    way or easement line (and at greater distances as may be required by the Planning
    Commission depending on traffic generation and parking lot size). (See Figure 22 )

  14. Maneuverability Areas
    In order to promote adequate maneuverability, the following provisions shall be
    1. Turn-Around Area. Where more than three (3) parking spaces are served by
      a single driveway, a turn-around area shall be provided, or other provision
      shall be made, to permit cars to exit the parking lot or garage without backing
      onto any street or sidewalk.

    2. Back-Up Area. Each parking space shall be provided with a sufficient backup
      area to permit egress in one maneuver, consisting of one backward and
      one forward movement.

  15. Paving
    Any off-street parking or loading area shall be surfaced with a pavement having an
    asphalt or concrete binder of sufficient strength to support vehicular loads imposed
    on it while providing a durable, dustless surface.

  16. Drainage
    Drainage shall comply with the provisions contained in Section 1207.02,
    "Stormwater Management." All parking spaces, together with driveways, aisles, and
    other circulation areas shall be graded and drained so as to dispose of surface water
    which might accumulate within or upon such area, and shall be designed to prevent
    the excess drainage of surface water onto adjacent properties, walkways, or onto
    public streets. Adequate arrangements shall be made to insure acceptable diversion
    to an adequate storm water drainage system, and these plans shall be reviewed by the
    City Engineer.

  17. Lighting
    Fixed lighting shall comply with the provisions contained in Section 1207.14
    "Exterior Lighting," and be arranged to prevent direct glare of beams onto any
    public or private property or street.

  18. Wheel Stops and Continuous Curbs
    Wheel stops or continuous curbs shall be provided, located, and designed to protect
    required screening devices and landscaping and pedestrian ways from damage or
    encroachment of vehicles and to provide necessary traffic control in the parking area.
    1. Wheel Stops. Each wheel stop shall be a singular block of reinforced
      concrete, stone, or other durable material six inches (6") in height, six inches
      (6") in width, and eight feet (8') in length. Wheel stops shall be placed as
      shown in Figure 25 and securely attached to the ground and may be used
      only at the end of parking stalls.

    2. Continuous Curbs. Continuous curbs shall be made of asphalt, concrete, or
      stone, and shall be a minimum of six inches (6") in height and six inches (6")
      in width. They shall form a non-interrupted edge around all landscaped areas
      adjacent to parking and turn-around areas which are not protected by wheel

    3. Placement. The wheel stop or continuous curb shall be located a minimum of
      four feet (4') from any structures, buildings, walls, or plant material, excluding
      groundcover, to prevent a vehicle from driving onto the landscape area or
      hitting any structure or plant material at the edge of the parking area. The
      mature size of the plant material shall be specified to determine if the
      landscaped area meets the setback requirements. See Figure 23.

    4. Stall Dimensions. Where continuous curbs are used, the paved area of the
      parking stall length required in Subsection (k) and illustrated in Figure 22
      (Dimension "C") may be reduced by two and one-half feet (2 2>) as
      shown in Figure 22, provided that the vehicle overhang will not
      encroach on pedestrian circulation or the required setback for desirable plant
      growth. Where wheel stops are used, the paved area of the parking stall
      length required in Subsection (k) and illustrated in Figure 22 (Dimension "C")
      shall not be reduced.

  19. Off-Street Loading Requirements
    1. On the same lot with every building to be used for commercial/retail and
      industrial purposes, adequate space for standing, loading, and unloading of
      motor vehicles shall be provided to avoid interference with the public use of
      streets. Loading spaces shall not conflict with or overlap with the area used
      for off-street parking.

    2. Plans and Design Standards
      1. One (1) loading space shall be provided for all buildings having a
        gross floor area between ten thousand (10,000) square feet to twenty
        thousand (20,000) square feet.
      2. One additional loading space shall be provided for every additional
        twenty thousand (20,000) square feet of gross floor area, provided
        that no such loading space occupies any part of a public street, alley,
        driveway or sidewalk.

    3. General Standards for Off-Street Loading
      Every loading space shall be designed, constructed, and maintained in
      accordance with the standards and requirements set forth: on the following
      1. Location of Required Loading Spaces. Loading spaces shall be
        located on the same lot as the building or structure to which they are
        accessory. No loading space shall be located in any required front
        yard, nor shall it permit any vehicle to extend into any front yard or
        across any lot line of a more restrictive district while being loaded or
      2. Dimensions. No required loading space shall be less than twelve feet
        (12') in width or thirty-five (35') in length or have a vertical clearance
        of less than fourteen feet (14').
      3. Access. Loading spaces shall be designed and arranged to provide
        access to a street or alley in a manner that will create the least
        possible interference with traffic movement and parking lot
      4. Surface and Drainage. Every loading space shall meet the surface
        and drainage requirements of subsections (o) - Paving and (p) -
      5. Screening. All operations, material, and vehicles within any loading
        space that are visible from public streets or from residential uses shall
        be screened. The screening material shall be year round opaque and
        may be comprised of landscaping, fences, walls, architectural
        elements, or a combination of such techniques.